Were Darwin’s Galapagos Finches Evolution? What does happen in a population as the genome reacts to the environment? Darwin looks at the finches on the Galapagos Islands and notices variations in beak size. He thought that the harder seed in the dry time was causing the beaks of the finches to grow stouter from the use of the part. But what was happening was that natural selection or a long term drought in the islands was causing the seed cases to harden. The heavier beaked finch allele in the genome was favored and the lighter beaked finch allele was not. The heavier beaked finch became more dominant because it passed on the heavy beak alleles. The heavy beak was not the result of a mutation! It was already an allele in the genome and was just brought out as a result of the environment. When the rains came back the lighter beak became the more efficient beak and the number of heavy beaks reduced.
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Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things.
The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Lamoureux, March/April Introduction. Today’s archaeologist has a wide variety of natural, electro-magnetic, chemical, and radio-metric dating methodologies available to her that can be used to accurately date objects that are just a few hundred years old as well as objects that are a few million years old with high.
Firstly, it should be needless to say that it is impossible to reconstruct an entire hypothetical ancient animal based on a few teeth! There is no belief of dinosaurs in the Native American religion or tradition. For that matter, why were there no discoveries prior to the nineteenth century in any part of the world? All these places were inhabited and well-explored for thousands of years before this time, why had no one ever found a dinosaur fossil before?
Marsh is said to have discovered over different ancient species including 80 dinosaurs, while Cope discovered Out of the dinosaur species supposedly discovered by the two men, however, only 32 are presently considered valid; the rest have all proven to be falsifications and fabrications! None of them once claimed to find a complete skeleton either, so all their work involved reconstructions.
In fact, to this day no complete skeleton has ever been found, and so all dinosaurs are reconstructions. The finds are often made during special dinosaur-bone hunting trips and expeditions by these people to far-away regions already inhabited and explored. This seems highly implausible. More believable is the case of the discovery of the first original Dead Sea scrolls in , which were unintentionally discovered by a child, and which were all published by Also very interesting to note are special areas set aside and designated as dinosaur parks for which amateur dinosaur hunters are required to first obtain a dinosaur hunting license.
In one of the largest dinosaur excavation sites, called the Ruth Mason Quarry, over 2, fossils were allegedly discovered. Casts and original skeletons assembled from these bones are currently on display in over 60 museums world-wide.
How Do Scientists Determine the Age of Dinosaur Bones?
How do we know this to be true? Carbon and other radioisotopes are used to measure the age of fossils, rocks, and other materials that make up Earth’s geologic history. These techniques are reliable and valid. They provide clues into our earliest origins. And they contribute to the hundreds of lines of evidence supporting Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution , which continues to stand the test of time.
Uranium is fissionable with thermal neotrons, it is a fissile material. Uranium is fissionable with rapid neutrons, it is a fertile material. Fission of some uranium, plutonium, neptunium isotopes release a formidable energy which can be used to obtain electrical/thermal energy.
Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old. However, to draw this conclusion we have to assume that the rate of cratering has been the same in the past as it is now.
And there are now good reasons for thinking that it might have been quite intense in the past, in which case the craters do not indicate an old age at all see below. No scientific method can prove the age of the earth or the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Ages of millions of years are all calculated by assuming the rates of change of processes in the past were the same as we observe today—called the principle of uniformitarianism. If the age calculated from such assumptions disagrees with what they think the age should be, they conclude that their assumptions did not apply in this case, and adjust them accordingly.
If the calculated result gives an acceptable age, the investigators publish it. Examples of young ages listed here are also obtained by applying the same principle of uniformitarianism. Long-age proponents will dismiss this sort of evidence for a young age of the earth by arguing that the assumptions about the past do not apply in these cases.
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See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric  dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days?
Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago.
Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.
Uranium technique raises dinosaur question 02 February Share A new technique for dating fossils based on uranium’s radioactive properties could mean that palaeontologists will have to revise their theories on the end of the dinosaurs. Larry Heaman holds the sauropod specimen analysed using the new technique Image: University of Alberta A Canadian research team has used a new uranium-lead U-Pb dating technique to show that a fossilised dinosaur bone found in New Mexico is only A team led by Larry Heaman of the University of Alberta’s Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences used the method to determine the age of the fossilised femur of a sauropod, a herbivorous dinosaur.
The in situ U-Pb technique involves laser ablation to remove minute particles of the fossil which then undergo isotopic analysis. The results have now been published in Geology, the journal of the Geological Society of America. Uranium has a half-life of over million years, while uranium has a half-life of about 4. These properties mean that the radioactive decay of uranium to lead has previously been used to measure the age of rocks, including those of some of the oldest on Earth, but its use in direct dating of fossils is new.
Creation vs. Evolution
Godthelp in Hill, Robert S. White, , The Nature of Hidden Worlds: Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne.
The Origin of Earth’s Radioactivity SUMMARY: As the flood began, stresses in the massive fluttering crust generated huge voltages via the piezoelectric effect. 4 For weeks, powerful electrical surges within earth’s crust—much like bolts of lightning—produced equally powerful magnetic forces that squeezed (according to Faraday’s Law) atomic nuclei together into highly unstable.
The isochron method Many radioactive dating methods are based on minute additions of daughter products to a rock or mineral in which a considerable amount of daughter-type isotopes already exists. These isotopes did not come from radioactive decay in the system but rather formed during the original creation of the elements. In this case, it is a big advantage to present the data in a form in which the abundance of both the parent and daughter isotopes are given with respect to the abundance of the initial background daughter.
The incremental additions of the daughter type can then be viewed in proportion to the abundance of parent atoms. In mathematical terms this is achieved as follows. This term, shown in Figure 1, is called the initial ratio. The slope is proportional to the geologic age of the system. In practice, the isochron approach has many inherent advantages. When a single body of liquid rock crystallizes, parent and daughter elements may separate so that, once solid, the isotopic data would define a series of points, such as those shown as open circles designated R1, R2, R3 in Figure 1.
With time each would then develop additional daughter abundances in proportion to the amount of parent present. If a number of samples are analyzed and the results are shown to define a straight line within error, then a precise age is defined because this is only possible if each is a closed system and each has the same initial ratio and age. The uncertainty in determining the slope is reduced because it is defined by many points. A second advantage of the method relates to the fact that under high-temperature conditions the daughter isotopes may escape from the host minerals.
How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?
Paleogeography[ edit ] Ma plate tectonic reconstruction Sydney , Australia lies on Triassic shales and sandstones. Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney belong to the Triassic Sydney sandstone. From the east, along the equator, the Tethys sea penetrated Pangaea, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to be closed. Later in the mid-Triassic a similar sea penetrated along the equator from the west.
The remaining shores were surrounded by the world-ocean known as Panthalassa “all the sea”. All the deep-ocean sediments laid down during the Triassic have disappeared through subduction of oceanic plates; thus, very little is known of the Triassic open ocean.
Uranium has a half-life of over million years, while uranium has a half-life of about billion years, similar to the age of the Earth itself. These properties mean that the radioactive decay of uranium to lead has previously been used to measure the age of rocks, including those of some of the oldest on Earth, but its use in direct dating of fossils is new.
Paleontology is the study of fossils. A fossil is defined as any trace of a past life form. Thus, although wood, bones, and shells are the most common fossils, under certain conditions soft tissues, tracks and trails, and even coprolites fossil feces may be preserved as fossils. Although most of the fossils that paleontologists study are several thousands to several billions of years old, there is no absolute minimum age for a biological structure to be a fossil.
Paleontologists study fossils and attempt to use them to reconstruct the history of the Earth and the life on it. Some paleontologists study the ecology of the past; others work on the evolution of fossil taxa. For additional information on the subdisciplines of paleontology, read our “What is paleontology?
How Carbon-14 Dating Works
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.
If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.
These techniques, unlike carbon dating, mostly use the relative concentrations of parent and daughter products in radioactive decay chains. For example, potassium decays to argon; uranium decays to lead via other elements like radium; uranium decays to lead; rubidium decays to strontium; etc.
Paleogeography[ edit ] Ma plate tectonic reconstruction Sydney , Australia lies on Triassic shales and sandstones. Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney belong to the Triassic Sydney sandstone. From the east, along the equator, the Tethys sea penetrated Pangaea, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to be closed. Later in the mid-Triassic a similar sea penetrated along the equator from the west. The remaining shores were surrounded by the world-ocean known as Panthalassa “all the sea”.
All the deep-ocean sediments laid down during the Triassic have disappeared through subduction of oceanic plates; thus, very little is known of the Triassic open ocean. The supercontinent Pangaea was rifting during the Triassic—especially late in that period—but had not yet separated. The first nonmarine sediments in the rift that marks the initial break-up of Pangaea, which separated New Jersey from Morocco , are of Late Triassic age; in the U. In North America , for example, marine deposits are limited to a few exposures in the west.
Thus Triassic stratigraphy is mostly based on organisms that lived in lagoons and hypersaline environments, such as Estheria crustaceans. In these formations, one of the earliest dinosaurs, Staurikosaurus , as well as the mammal ancestors Brasilitherium and Brasilodon have been discovered. Climate[ edit ] The Triassic continental interior climate was generally hot and dry, so that typical deposits are red bed sandstones and evaporites.
The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Furthermore, when you consider that many archaeological sites will contain numerous types of artifacts that permit the use of multiple dating methodologies, a modern archaeologist can often employ cross-dating methodologies which can allow for extremely accurate dating as far back as 10, years in some regions.
Natural Dating Techniques A modern archaeologist has almost half a dozen natural dating techniques that she can apply in the field that she can use to quickly determine an approximate date range, which, in the cases of varve analysis and dendrochronology, can often be used to decrease the date range estimate to a matter of just a few years. One of the oldest natural dating techniques is geochronology, which is based on the principle of superposition — an object, or layer, on top must have been placed there at a later point in time.
Answer: Uranium Radioactive isotopes are used to determine the age of antique objects, including fossils. The half-life time of the radioactive elements is what permits the process of dating. The half-life of C is too short to be useful to date too old objects. Precambrian time is the most antique era.
After that comes a more difficult process: Finding a fossil merely places one organism within a time span. Finding many organisms places the group within a time span. Determining the actual existence-span of the species is very approximate. If the fossils are relatively rare, the actual existence-span may be much greater that the fossil record indicates. Even if the fossils are relatively abundant during the species’ heyday, the number of organisms may have been small during the time of its appearance on Earth and during its demise.